MedConnections Forums DIASTAT Dosage Side Effect Coupon
DIASTAT Full Package Insert (PDF). DIASTAT DIASTAT: Indications and Usage. Diazepam DIASTAT: Dosage & Administration. (see also.
All reported events are included except those already listed above, events unlikely to be drug-related, and those too general to be informative. Events are included without regard to determination of a causal relationship to diazepam.
CAUTION: Federal law prohibits the transfer of this drug to any person other than the patient for whom it was prescribed.
Prolonged CNS depression has been observed in neonates treated with diazepam. Therefore, diazepam rectal gel is not recommended for use in children under six months of age.
The prescriber may wish to prescribe a second dose of Diazepam rectal gel. A second dose, when required, may be given 4-12 hours after the first dose.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CAREGIVERS UPON RECEIPT FROM PHARMACY.
The Diazepam rectal gel dose should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. The recommended dose of Diazepam rectal gel is 0.2-0.5 mg/kg depending on age. See the dosing table for specific recommendations.
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If Diazepam rectal gel is to be combined with other psychotropic agents or other CNS depressants, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed particularly with known compounds which may potentiate the action of diazepam, such as phenothiazines, narcotics, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors and other antidepressants.
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). Diastat AcuDial.
Paradoxical reactions such as acute hyperexcited states, anxiety, hallucinations, increased muscle spasticity, insomnia, rage, sleep disturbances and stimulation have been reported with diazepam; should these occur, use of Diazepam rectal gel should be discontinued.
The following infrequent adverse events were not seen with Diazepam rectal gel but have been reported previously with diazepam use: depression, slurred speech, syncope, constipation, changes in libido, urinary retention, bradycardia, cardiovascular collapse, nystagmus, urticaria, neutropenia and jaundice.
Valproate may potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diazepam.
Diazepam rectal gel should only be administered by caregivers who in the opinion of the prescribing physician 1) are able to distinguish the distinct cluster of seizures (and/or the events presumed to herald their onset) from the patient’s ordinary seizure activity, 2) have been instructed and judged to be competent to administer the treatment rectally, 3) understand explicitly which seizure manifestations may or may not be treated with diazepam rectal gel, and 4) are able to monitor the clinical response and recognize when that response is such that immediate professional medical evaluation is required.
by jmcleodrx » September 5th, 2012, 6:57 am Return to Anti-seizures.
Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of regular use of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE section).
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The rectal delivery system includes a plastic applicator with a flexible, molded tip available in two lengths. The Diastat AcuDial 10-mg syringe is available with a 4.4 cm tip and the Diastat AcuDial 20-mg syringe is available with a 6.0 cm tip. Diastat 2.5mg is also available with a 4.4cm tip.
Two patients who received Diazepam rectal gel died seven to 15 weeks following treatment; neither of these deaths was deemed related to Diazepam rectal gel.
A decision to prescribe Diazepam rectal gel involves more than the diagnosis and the selection of the correct dose for the patient.
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Diazepam rectal gel is a gel formulation of diazepam intended for rectal administration in the management of selected, refractory, patients with epilepsy, on stable regimens of AEDs, who require intermittent use of diazepam to control bouts of increased seizure activity.
Approximay 1.4% of the 573 patients who received Diazepam rectal gel in clinical trials of epilepsy discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The adverse event most frequently associated with discontinuation (occurring in three patients) was somnolence. Other adverse events most commonly associated with discontinuation and occurring in two patients were hypoventilation and rash. Adverse events occurring in one patient were asthenia, hyperkinesia, incoordination, vasodilatation and urticaria. These events were judged to be related to diazepam rectal gel.
There have been no clinical studies or reports in literature to evaluate the interaction of rectally administered diazepam with other drugs. As with all drugs, the potential for interaction by a variety of mechanisms is a possibility.
The pattern of adverse events was similar for different age, race and gender groups.
Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for resedation, respiratory depression and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. The complete flumazenil package insert, including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, should be consulted prior to use.
This section is intended primarily for the prescriber; however, the prescriber should also be aware of the dosing information and directions for use provided in the patient package insert.
Diazepam rectal gel is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to diazepam. Diazepam rectal gel may be used in patients with open angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy but is contraindicated in acute narrow angle glaucoma.
SEE PHARMACIST IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE INSTRUCTIONS.
The specific considerations addressed above regarding the use of anticonvulsants in epileptic women of childbearing potential should be weighed in treating or counseling these women.
General Concerns and Considerations About Anticonvulsants: Reports suggest an association between the use of anticonvulsant drugs by women with epilepsy and an elevated incidence of birth defects in children born to these women. Data are more extensive with respect to phenytoin and phenobarbital, but a smaller number of systematic or anecdotal reports suggest a possible similar association with the use of all known anticonvulsant drugs.
Diazepam rectal gel adverse event data were collected from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and open-label studies. The majority of adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature.
BODY AS A WHOLE: Asthenia CARDIOVASCULAR: Hypotension, vasodilatation.
The instructions are also available on the bottom of each drug product package.
Diazepam rectal gel has been administered to 573 patients with epilepsy during all clinical trials, only some of which were placebo-controlled. During these trials, all adverse events were recorded by the clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals having adverse events, similar types of events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using modified COSTART dictionary terminology. These categories are used in the listing below. All of the events listed below occurred in at least 1% of the 573 individuals exposed to Diazepam rectal gel.
Two patients in the clinical studies received more than twice the target dose; no adverse events were reported.
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Confirm the dose prescribed by your doctor is visible and if known, is correct. FOR EACH SYRINGE:
The most frequent adverse event reported to be related to Diazepam rectal gel in the two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies was somnolence (23%). Less frequent adverse events were dizziness, headache, pain, abdominal pain, nervousness, vasodilatation, diarrhea, ataxia, euphoria, incoordination, asthma, rhinitis, and rash, which occurred in approximay 2-5% of patients.
Each Twin Pack contains two diazepam rectal gel delivery systems, two packets of lubricating jelly, and administration and disposal Instructions available on the bottom of the package. Diastat AcuDial is also packed with Instructions for Caregivers upon receipt from pharmacy.
Advice Regarding the Use of Diazepam rectal gel in Women of Childbearing Potential: In general, the use of Diazepam rectal gel in women of childbearing potential, and more specifically during known pregnancy, should be considered only when the clinical situation warrants the risk to the fetus.
Because diazepam rectal gel produces CNS depression, patients receiving this drug who are otherwise capable and qualified to do so should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring mental alertness, such as operating machinery, driving a motor vehicle, or riding a bicycle until they have compley returned to their level of baseline functioning.
Because Diazepam rectal gel is provided as unit doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 mg, the prescribed dose is obtained by rounding upward to the next available dose. The following table provides acceptable weight ranges for each dose and age category, such that patients will receive between 90% and 180% of the calculated recommended dose. The safety of this strategy has been established in clinical trials.
Animal Findings: Diazepam has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and hamsters when given orally at single doses of 100 mg/kg or greater (approximay eight times the maximum recommended human dose or greater on a mg/m 2 basis). Cleft palate and exencephaly are the most common and consistently reported malformations produced in these species by administration of high, maternally-toxic doses of diazepam during organogenesis. Rodent studies have indicated that prenatal exposure to diazepam doses similar to those used clinically can produce longterm changes in cellular immune responses, brain neurochemistry, and behavior.
Third, because a non-health professional will be obliged to identify episodes suitable for treatment, make the decision to administer treatment upon that identification, administer the drug, monitor the patient, and assess the adequacy of the response to treatment, a major component of the prescribing process involves the necessary instruction of this individual.
The clearance of diazepam and certain other benzodiazepines can be delayed in association with cimetidine administration. The clinical significance of this is unclear.
Second, because Diazepam rectal gel is only intended for adjunctive use, the prescriber must ensure that the patient is receiving an optimal regimen of standard anti-epileptic drug treatment and is, nevertheless, continuing to experience these characteristic episodes.
Effect of Diazepam on the Metabolism of Other Drugs: There are no reports as to which isozymes could be inhibited or induced by diazepam. But, based on the fact that diazepam is a substrate for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, it is possible that diazepam may interfere with the metabolism of drugs which are substrates for CYP2C19, (e.g. omeprazole, propranolol, and imipramine) and CYP3A4 (e.g. cyclosporine, paclitaxel, terfenadine, theophylline, and warfarin) leading to a potential drug-drug interaction.
Table 1 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in > 1% of patients enrolled in parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials and were numerically more common in the Diazepam rectal gel group. Adverse events were usually mild or moderate in intensity.
NERVOUS: Agitation, confusion, convulsion, dysarthria, emotional lability, speech disorder, thinking abnormal, vertigo RESPIRATORY: Hiccup.
Diazepam rectal gel rectal delivery system is a non-sterile, prefilled, unit dose, rectal delivery system. The rectal delivery system includes a plastic applicator with a flexible, molded tip available in two lengths, designated for convenience as 10 mg Delivery System and 20 mg Delivery System. The available doses from 20 mg delivery system are 12.5 mg, 15 mg, 17.5 mg, and 20 mg. The available doses from 10 mg delivery system are 5 mg, 7.5 mg, and 10 mg. The Diazepam rectal gel delivery system is available in the following three presentations:
Distributed by: Valeant Pharmaceuticals International One Enterprise Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 USA.
The prescriber should be aware that these figures, obtained when Diazepam rectal gel was added to concurrent antiepileptic drug therapy, cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice when patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those prevailing during clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, or investigators. An inspection of these frequencies, however, does provide the prescribing physician with one basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidences in the population studied.
The prescribed dose of Diazepam rectal gel should be adjusted by the physician periodically to reflect changes in the patient¹s age or weight.
Other events reported by 1% or more of patients treated in controlled trials but equally or more frequent in the placebo group than in the Diazepam rectal gel group were abdominal pain, pain, nervousness, and rhinitis. Other events reported by fewer than 1% of patients were infection, anorexia, vomiting, anemia, lymphadenopathy, grand mal convulsion, hyperkinesia, cough increased, pruritus, sweating, mydriasis, and urinary tract infection.
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Evidence to support the use of diazepam rectal gel was adduced in two controlled trials (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, CLINICAL STUDIES subsection) that enrolled patients with partial onset or generalized convulsive seizures who were identified jointly by their caregivers and physicians as suffering intermittent and periodic episodes of markedly increased seizure activity, sometimes heralded by nonconvulsive symptoms, that for the individual patient were characteristic and were deemed by the prescriber to be of a kind for which a benzodiazepine would ordinarily be administered acuy. Although these clusters or bouts of seizures differed among patients, for any individual patient the clusters of seizure activity were not only stereotypic but were judged by those conducting and participating in these studies to be distinguishable from other seizures suffered by that patient. The conclusion that a patient experienced such unique episodes of seizure activity was based on historical information.
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General Concerns About Benzodiazepines: An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of benzodiazepine drugs has been suggested in several studies.
Although diazepam rectal gel is indicated for use solely on an intermittent basis, the potential for a synergistic CNS-depressant effect when used simultaneously with alcohol or other CNS depressants must be considered by the prescribing physician, and appropriate recommendations made to the patient and/or caregiver.
Effect of Other Drugs on Diazepam Metabolism: In vitro studies using human liver preparations suggest that CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 are the principal isozymes involved in the initial oxidative metabolism of diazepam. Therefore, potential interactions may occur when diazepam is given concurrently with agents that affect CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activity. Potential inhibitors of CYP2C19 (e.g., cimetidine, quinidine, and tranylcypromine) and CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and clotrimazole) could decrease the rate of diazepam elimination, while inducers of CYP2C19 (e.g., rifampin) and CYP3A4 (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, dexamethasone and phenobarbital) could increase the rate of elimination of diazepam.
Tonic status epilepticus has been precipitated in patients treated with IV diazepam for petit mal status or petit mal variant status.
Because of experience with other members of the benzodiazepine class, Diazepam rectal gel is assumed to be capable of causing an increased risk of congenital abnormalities when administered to a pregnant woman during the first trimester. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients should also be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physician about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.
Diazepam rectal gel is not recommended for chronic, daily use as an anticonvulsant because of the potential for development of tolerance to diazepam. Chronic daily use of diazepam may increase the frequency and/or severity of tonic clonic seizures, requiring an increase in the dosage of standard anticonvulsant medication. In such cases, abrupt withdrawal of chronic diazepam may also be associated with a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures.
Fourth, the prescriber and caregiver must have a common understanding of what is and is not an episode of seizures that is appropriate for treatment, the timing of administration in relation to the onset of the episode, the mechanics of administering the drug, how and what to observe following administration, and what would constitute an outcome requiring immediate and direct medical attention.
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In elderly and debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be adjusted downward to reduce the likelihood of ataxia or oversedation.
The reports suggesting an elevated incidence of birth defects in children of drug treated epileptic women cannot be regarded as adequate to prove a definite cause and effect relationship. There are intrinsic methodologic problems in obtaining adequate data on drug teratogenicity in humans; the possibility also exists that other factors, e.g., genetic factors or the epileptic condition itself, may be more important than drug therapy in leading to birth defects. The great majority of mothers on anticonvulsant medication deliver normal infants. It is important to note that anticonvulsant drugs should not be discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life. In individual cases where the severity and frequency of the seizure disorder are such that the removal of medication does not pose a serious threat to the patient, discontinuation of the drug may be considered prior to and during pregnancy, although it cannot be said with any confidence that even mild seizures do not pose some hazards to the developing embryo or fetus.
Valium is a registered trademark of Roche Pharmaceuticals.
In the two domestic double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies, the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment because of adverse events was 2% for the group treated with Diazepam rectal gel, versus 2% for the placebo group. In the Diazepam rectal gel group, the adverse events considered the primary reason for discontinuation were different in the two patients who discontinued treatment; one discontinued due to rash and one discontinued due to lethargy. The primary reason for discontinuation in the patients treated with placebo was lack of effect.
It is recommended that Diazepam rectal gel be used to treat no more than five episodes per month and no more than one episode every five days.
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by MedConnections » July 1st, 2011, 12:00 am.
There may also be non-teratogenic risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy. There have been reports of neonatal flaccidity, respiratory and feeding difficulties, and hypothermia in children born to mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines late in pregnancy. In addition, children born to mothers receiving benzodiazepines on a regular basis late in pregnancy may be at some risk of experiencing withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period.
No clinical studies have been conducted with diazepam rectal gel in pregnant women. Data from several sources raise concerns about the use of diazepam during pregnancy.
(see also Patient/Caregiver Package Insert).
Previous reports of diazepam overdosage have shown that manifestations of diazepam overdosage include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored, as in all cases of drug overdosage, although, in general, these effects have been minimal. General supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of levarterenol or metaraminol. Dialysis is of limited value.
First, the prescriber must be convinced from historical reports and/or personal observations that the patient exhibits the characteristic identifiable seizure cluster that can be distinguished from the patient¹s usual seizure activity by the caregiver who will be responsible for administering Diazepam rectal gel.
The Diastat 2.5 mg dose may also be used as a partial replacement dose for patients who may expel a portion of the first dose.